2014年1月8日

認識防火纖維



隨著現代科技和社會的急速發展,火災對於我們的威脅已經急劇地增加,對於防火纖維的需求也相對的提高,運用高性能防火纖維材料來保護人們在生活上、工作上的需求正在快速增加之中。防火纖維性能評估的指標係以限氧指數LOI值(Limit of Oxygen Index)為依據,LOI=O2/O2+N2 ×100(%),為原料在燃燒筒中持續燃燒所需的最低氧濃度的%值,指數越高的纖維在燃燒時需要高濃度的氧,換言之,LOI值愈高,纖維較不易燃燒。目前市面上常見的纖維原料其LOI值分別如下表所列。

纖維的種類

纖維的種類 LOI值
17~19
羊毛 24~26
嫘縈 17~19
聚酯 (認識聚酯纖維) 20~22
尼龍 (認識尼龍) 18~20
亞克力 18~20
聚丙烯 18~20
改質亞克力防火纖維 34~35


通常當纖維材料LOI值達到26以上時,就具有自行消火性,難燃性較佳,可視此材料本身具有自行撲滅火燄的特性,故稱之為具阻燃性,在大氣中具不燃的特性,故亦稱之為半非可燃性纖維(semi-non-flammable fiber),一般產業用纖維都使用LOI值30以上之原料。

台灣紡織廠近年來發展以壓克力纖維特殊經熱裂解氧化後所製造出一種獨特的防火纖維布,其LOI值高達50以上,以某台灣製的防火纖維為例,註冊商標名稱為 KoTHmex,具有似羊毛的柔軟、易彎的特性,更同時維持著優秀的耐燃性質,再者,其亦比碳纖維及無機纖維輕了許多,在性能上超越一般傳統的防火纖維,而且其質料輕、柔軟、加工性優良。而且當該纖維達到近乎焚燒的狀態時,仍不會燃燒、熔融或收縮只是相當於被碳化,故其仍維持原有的形態,因此以KoTHmex 防火纖維作為穿著上的防護材,可達到免於二次傷害的威脅。

認識防火纖維 - 日本Kanekalon防火纖維

日本鐘淵化學工業開發成功之難燃纖維Kanekalon Protex是以獨創的技術所開發之亞克力系和氯化乙烯的共聚合體為基礎,以其獨特的特性而聞名。

Kanekalon Protex具有很高的難燃性,尤其是和棉、嫘縈等纖維素材料進行交織及混紡組合,且Kanekalon Protex遇熱即收縮形成碳化層,故安全性比溶融型的聚酯和亞克力纖維還要高。

一般寢具(被褥、被單等罩布類、毛毯類)的LOI值達26~27即可符合於防火要求,新開發的Kanekalon Protex可以和棉、羊毛等天然纖維及所有的纖維進行混合而達到此一防火需求,可大幅解決以往天然纖維難燃製品手感不良、吸濕性及透氣性不佳的問題,同時將天然素材優異手感與性能發揮得淋漓盡致。

Kanekalon Protex應用如下:

被單、枕套、毛毯:藉由Kanekalon Protex/棉(30/70)的混紡比例,在手感、吸汗性、吸濕性、靜電特性、強度、起毛毬等方面表現和棉100%相同特性,其和傳統以難燃劑後加工之防火商品不同之處在於可用氯系漂白劑進行漂白。

棉混毛毯:以Kanekalon Protex/棉混合製成之毛毯具有棉100%毛毯之自然風格。若棉100%毛毯時,經由洗濯、多少會變硬、導致手感的降低,但Kanekalon Protex/棉混毛毯則具有優良的耐洗濯性,且其獨特的柔軟感即使經過長期的使用也不會改變。

蓋被、墊被:藉由與棉或聚酯的混紡及交織布料而製成羽毛被、合纖被進行多樣的發展,尤其是近年來家用紡織品市場的高級化發展趨勢帶動下,蓋被表布以Kanekalon Protex/聚酯(50/50)所製成,蓋被胎為 Kanekalon Protex/棉(50/50),可以展現完美的手感及防火效能。

床墊褥:已開發有抑制起毛毬之Kanekalon Protex/棉混紡與洗濯時收縮較低之Kanekalon Protex/聚酯共同混紡,一則可以降低成本,一則可以達到防火之雙重效益。

美國消防隊防火外套
US Fire Department Fire Coat
認識防火纖維 - 聚醯亞胺(Polyimide)纖維

聚醯亞胺(Polyimide簡稱PI)起源於1950年代中期太空時代的開始,主要是針對航太工業耐高溫材料需求而研發。

由於聚醯亞胺為目前熱塑性纖維材料中耐熱性最高的,在空氣中400℃仍不分解,讓聚醯亞胺在航太與太空等特殊耐高溫及耐高濕度用途日漸增加。

聚醯亞胺纖維具有優異的耐高溫特性,其優點如下所列:
1.高強度
2.高韌性
3.低熱膨脹係數
4.低導電係數
5.高耐熱溫度(360℃)

開發聚醯胺亞胺(Poly Amide Imide簡稱PAI)的目的是為了改善PI的加工性,該纖維係PI與芳香族聚醯胺的共聚合物。

而開發聚醚醯亞胺 (Polyetherimide簡稱PEI)則是附加醚鍵於PI中,使PI具有卓越的流動性和加工性,其性能包括強度優異、發煙量低、具阻燃性,且耐藥品性佳(對脂肪族碳化氫、酸、稀鹼抗性好)。

認識防火纖維 - 耐熱尼龍纖維

尼龍是最早發展而且是數量最多的纖維材料,常常有人會問為什麼要稱為尼龍呢?最早是追溯到1931年美國杜邦公司卡洛斯發現尼龍材料,在當時為一創世紀的發明,尼龍即為其商品名。正確的說法,尼龍纖維是表示高分子式內具有醯胺基(amide group —CONH—)。尼龍的種類非常多,大致上以己內醯胺開環聚合、二元胺和二元酸聚縮合反應而得為主。

工業用纖維耐熱溫度的要求越來越高,所以近年來高溫尼龍的用量逐年持續增加。其中以尼龍66和尼龍6為最大量約佔92%,尼龍11、尼龍12、尼龍46及尼龍610則普遍應用於工程塑膠上。

工業用尼龍纖維具有耐高溫及自熄性的特性,但尼龍纖維最大限制係燃燒時產生融滴問題,所以應用上宜多加考慮其適用性,所以將尼龍性能敘述如下。

  1. 耐磨耗,具自滑性。
  2. 耐酸鹼、耐油污、耐腐蝕。
  3. 耐高溫。
  4. 韌性佳,耐低溫。
  5. 抗潛變,機械強度高。
  6. 具自熄性。
  7. 電氣性質,抗絕緣強度高。



What is Fire-retardant Fiber?


The term fire-retardant as applied to organic (i.e., containing carbon) materials, is intended to refer to reduced fire hazard, as all will burn under certain circumstances. The tests used specified in building codes, such as NFPA 701, are more correctly flame resistance tests, which test a fabric's ability to resist ignition with the flame size and duration in the test conditions. The result is a comparative test, which provides a measure of the material's resistance to propagating combustion caused by small scale ignition sources. These tests do not predict the burning characteristics of full scale hazards. In many cases, if exposed to a sufficiently large and sustained exposure fire, the fire-retardant fabrics will burn vigorously.

Fabric flammability is an important textile issue, especially for stage drapery that will be used in a public space such as a school, theatre or special event venue. In the United States, Federal regulations require that drapery fabrics used in such spaces be certified as flame or fire-retardant. For draperies and other fabrics used in public places, this is known as the NFPA 701 Test, which follows standards developed by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). Although all fabrics will burn, some are naturally more resistant to fire than others. Those that are more flammable can have their fire resistance drastically improved by treatment with fire-retardant chemicals. Inherently flame-retardant fabrics such as polyester are commonly used for flame retardant curtain fabrics.

Flameproof rayon fiber, process for production thereof, and flameproof fiber structure

Patents EP 2463412 A1

A flameproof rayon fiber having excellent flameproofness as well as excellent flame retardance, a method for manufacturing the same, and a flameproof fiber structure are provided. The flameproof rayon fiber according to the present invention includes components of silicon and sodium. Glass remains when the fiber is burned at 800°C, the glass component has a property of softening at 800°C, and when subjected to an X-ray fluorescence analysis, the rayon fiber has a silicon content in the range of 5 to 30% by mass and a sodium content in the range of 0.1 to 3% by mass. The flameproof rayon fiber according to the present invention can be manufactured by preparing an undiluted viscose solution; adding a solution containing a silicate compound containing an alkali metal to the undiluted viscose solution so as to make an alkali metal-containing silicate compound-added viscose solution; performing spinning by extruding the alkali metal-containing silicate compound-added viscose solution through a spinneret into a spinbath containing sulfuric acid, thus producing a fiber to be treated containing the silicate compound; and treating, in a scouring or aftertreatment process, the fiber to be treated with a solution having a pH in the range of 4 to 11 and a buffer action and containing sodium. A flameproof fiber structure of the present invention contains at least 30% by mass of the flameproof rayon fiber.

Fire-retardancy fabric treatment

Fire-retardant fabrics are normally treated to different British Standards; normally this depends on the end usage of the fabrics. BS 476 is a fire treatment for fabrics that are normally for wall hanging, and must only be used as for that purpose, where as CRIB 5 is a fabric fire treatment for upholstery and must only be used for furnishing and upholstery purposes, even if both fabrics have been treated for fire-retardancy. The relevant standards for fire-retardant fabrics include:

BS 5852:2006 describes the best practice methods to assess the ignitability of single material combinations, such as covers and fillings used in upholstered seating, or complete items of seating. These tests determine the effects of a smouldering cigarette, or other flaming ignition sources such as burning matches or a four-sheet full-size newspaper. This standard can be used to establish the potential ignitability of components in conjunction with other specified materials. BS 5852:2006 first looks at the criteria of ignition, and the health and safety of operators. It then explains the various apparatus, before focussing on smouldering ignition sources – such as a cigarette, butane gas flames and flaming wooden cribs. It also looks at ways to test for the ignitability of upholstery composites and complete items of furniture. The standard concludes with a final examination and test report.BS 5852:2006 replaces the older certification standard, BS 5852 - 1990.

BS 5867 is for flame retardant fabrics. It relates to curtains, blinds and drapes for windows when tested by the methods specified in BS 5438:1976. Where appropriate, a cleansing or wetting procedure specified in BS 5651 may also be required.

Source 5 (Crib 5) is related to upholstery and furniture coverings, and is related to BS 5852. The crib test uses a plank made from wood that is glued together. The fabrics is attached over the lint, then at bottom and a propane-diol is added. The testing unit is then ignited with a match. To decide whether the test has been passed the fabric and the crib are assessed to see whether there is flaming or smoldering on both the outer cover and the interior material. Assuming it does not ignite or smolder, the material will pass the test as no ignition. Similar tests include Source 0 (smouldering cigarette) and Source 1 (simulated match).
Class 0
Class 1
BS 476
The M1 standard is a European standard that is widely used in Europe only. Most UK fire officers are reluctant to accept MI certification, they prefer BS certificates.

Pants

You want these to be waterproof!!! You will be sitting on a chair-lift that may have snow on it, falling into the snow etc. You will feel really cold and miserable if you get wet so go waterproof. Plastic can be slippery, if you fall on snow you may slide a long way but it works if you are just learning on the beginner slope.

Jacket

It is very important that this should be windproof. You will be sitting on a chair-lift in the wind. The need for waterproof depends on your climate. In places like Australia where the snow is wet, and it often rains waterproof is important. In a drier climate like Utah or Colorado you will only need windproof. You will want a jacket you can close up against the bad weather - so preferably zip up around the neck and a hood to snuggle into. In colder climates a down jacket can be good in cold weather.

Thermal Underwear

Even if it is warm and you do not need this for warmth you may want to consider wearing a layer of thermal underwear to remove moisture from your skin. There are many companies that make sports wear that perform this job. If you do not have anything suitable then even a cheap pair of thermal underwear (legs and top) will be fine. Cotton holds moisture and will make a chill layer so try to avoid using any cotton. Generally many thin layers is a better system than 1 thick layer - the exception being if it is very cold and you have access to a down jacket - so even a couple of layers of thermal underwear can be handy if you are in a cold climate and/or feel the cold. I have found I can often get silk thermals at a good price(around $15 US) so these can be good if you are buying. Similarly there are well priced thermal layers available in most cooler climates. If you are coming from a warm climate perhaps try some online shopping or stop at a department store on your way to your destination.

編排整理 Edited: ACOTEX Fabric Talks 布料指南
資料來源: 中華民國紡織業拓展會

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