2013年5月7日

尼龍是什麼?


尼龍(Nylon),化學名稱為聚酰胺纖維,在中國地區又稱作「錦綸」。因為尼龍屬於天然纖維性質的合成纖維,所以非常適合與其它纖維交織混合,成為高質感又耐用的複合纖維。運用的層面也非常地廣,從潛水衣、減肥衣褲、沖浪衣、釣魚褲、防寒衣物等,到背包、環保袋、飲料罐套、甚至建築材料等等。

尼龍纖維的歷史

杜邦公司(DuPont),原先是著重於生產火藥,後來開始生產纖維素基塗料(cellulose-based paints)。

第一次世界大戰之後,原本著重於生產火藥化學的杜邦公司(DuPont),在1927年由查爾斯·斯汀(Charles Stine)向提出了研究改組建議,將當時任職於哈佛大學的華萊士·休姆·卡洛瑟斯(Wallace Hume Carothers)挖角進入杜邦公司帶領杜邦旗下的聚合物創新研究小組。研究小組一開始以德國化學家赫爾曼·施陶丁格(Hermann Staudinger)的理論為基礎並對其進行測試。

1930年春天,華萊士·休姆·卡洛瑟斯(Wallace Hume Carothers)和他的團隊已經成功合成出了兩種新的聚合物。第一個是氯丁橡膠:後來在第二次世界大戰期間被大量使用的合成橡膠。另一個則是一種彈性但堅固的糊狀物,後者後來成為了尼龍的始祖。

但直到1935年初,研究團隊使用了冷抽(cold drawing)方式成功開發出尼龍,這種聚合物具有所有所需的彈性和強度特性,命名為「聚合物6-6 (polymer 6-6)」。杜邦公司於1938年9月獲得了該聚合物的專利權,尼龍開始大量使用在絲襪和束衣褲上,並很快的在市場上獨霸,也奠定了尼龍在工業應用上的基礎。

尼龍(Nylon)的命名

1940年,杜邦公司的John W. Eckelberry指出開頭字母「nyl」是隨意選的,而「on」是取其他纖維名稱的結尾如棉cotton和人造絲rayon而來的。

但在1978年所出版的「杜邦(DuPont」一書中卻推翻了這個說法,在書中第七卷第二章的內容提到,尼龍(Nylon)最初的命名原意是「No-Run」,有不會被拆散、拆解(no unravel)之意,但因為考量到它並不是真的不可能被拆解,為了防止大眾的誤會而進行了修改:將字母交換為「nuron」,接著又改成「nilon」,最後為了易讀而將「i」改為「y」,也就是我們現在所熟知的尼龍(Nylon)。

尼龍的種類:

尼龍的種類有很多,尼龍4、尼龍7、尼龍8、尼龍10、尼龍510、尼龍6和尼龍66(尼龍6.6),而目前市面運動服飾的使用上多以尼龍6和尼龍66為主,由於尼龍6和尼龍66結構結構並不相同,兩者的表現也各有特點,故尼龍6和尼龍66的應用方面略有不同,下面我們將它們兩個以細微部分做一下比較說明:

尼龍6 (PA6)

尼龍6和尼龍66同屬聚醯胺纖維,從分子結構上看,這兩種纖維是非常相似的,兩者的物理及化學性能也基本近似。

尼龍6也稱為聚己內醯胺,是由一組6個碳原子組成。相較於尼龍66,尼龍6熔點較低,但韌性較尼龍66來的好些。

尼龍66 (PA66 尼龍6.6)

尼龍66命名源自於己二胺和己二酸所含的六個碳原子,1938年由美國杜邦公司註冊後並將尼龍66工業化量產。

尼龍66比尼龍6的耐熱性要好一些,尼龍66布料觸感較尼龍6柔軟,而在價格上,尼龍66的價格比尼龍6的貴得許多,常被拿來製做超細纖維,製成高檔服裝,市面上較高端的品牌多選用尼龍66製成,以達到精品的柔軟質感。

(前往了解杜邦的超細尼龍66纖維產品TACTEL®)

尼龍衣物如何清洗?

尼龍材質的衣物不容易退色,但很容易染色,清洗時務必記得和其他深色衣物分開洗滌,以免染色。適用一般中性洗潔劑,並避免使用熱水。因為尼龍材質不吸水的特性,洗後乾很快,幾乎不需要使用烘乾機,晾乾時盡量在陰涼通風處,避免長時間曝曬,以免衣服變黃。尼龍是不容易發皺的,但如果實在有需要熨燙時,隔著一層布料用低溫整燙即可。(前往了解衣物髒了該如何清洗)

(前往了解聚酯纖維和尼龍有何不同)

尼龍的優點是強韌、耐磨、平滑、重量輕、抗蟲、抗霉而且材質不易產生靜電、變形、起毛球和老損等。但缺點就是較不耐熱,所以熨燙時需小心溫度。要辨別尼龍的好壞,看尼龍的「丹尼」數是最直接的方式了。「丹尼」是尼龍的計算方式,與其它紡織布料的「支數」不同 (了解純棉寢具的密度關係),丹尼數不等於其中的支數密度。舉例來說,重量七十公克的尼龍,所製成的尼龍布料稱為七十丹尼,取用的原絲愈細,織出來的尼龍布就愈薄,愈薄的尼龍布其丹尼數自然也就愈低。

所以丹尼數低的尼龍布料較薄較柔軟,反之丹尼數高的尼龍布料則較厚手感較硬,市面上常見的尼龍布料可區分為70丹尼、210丹尼、420丹尼、840丹尼等。台灣紡織產業就曾開發出十丹尼的超薄透氣尼龍布料。

一般人對尼龍材質衣物的印象是不通風、不透氣、不舒適。但經過現代紡織技術的改造之後善尼龍的缺點,舒適度也能大大提升。尤其如果將尼龍抽成纖細的長絲並織成非常細薄的衣物時,其中間的空隙多,易使空氣循環流動,穿著起來便非常涼爽,可做為夏季衣著之用。

尼龍不耐高溫,只要靠近火焰或熱源,便會立即迅速卷縮熔成白色膠狀,並起泡。所以在清洗尼龍衣物時,切記避免使用高溫洗滌、烘乾或整燙。

【相關文章】
認識聚酯纖維 | What is Polyester?
認識彈性纖維 | What is Spandex?
認識針織布 | What is Knitted Fabric?
認識萊卡LYCRA | What is Lycra?
什麼是TACTEL®?| What is TACTEL®?



What is Nylon?


Nylon is a synthetic fabric made from petroleum products, and is among the many polymer products in common daily use throughout the world. It is the second most used fiber in the United States, since it is so versatile and relatively easy to make. Like most petroleum products, it has a very slow decay rate, which unfortunately results in the accumulation of unwanted products in landfills around the world.

尼龍 Nylon
Nylon is made through a chemical process called ring opening polymerization, in which a molecule with a cyclic shape is opened and flattened. Other forms of the material are made through the chemical reaction between two monomers: adipoyl chloride and hexamethylene diamine. When stretched, the fibers even out, thin, and smooth until they reach a point at which they have no more give, yet are still very strong. After nylon is extruded in a thread form, therefore, it is drawn or stretched after it cools to make long, even fibers. Before drawing, the material has a tangled structure, which straightens out into parallel lines.

The strength of nylon comes from amide groups in its molecular chain, which bond together very well. It also has a very regular shape, which makes it well suited to creating fabrics designed to stand up to intense forces. In fact, it was the primary material used in parachutes and ropes during World War II for this reason. It is also used for bulletproof vests and other hard wearing items.

Nylon is very sensitive to heat and should be washed and dried on cool settings. The fabric can also be hung dry, and it is favored by campers because it dries very quickly. It's a flexible textile, and as a result, it appears in a wide range of applications, from clothing to climbing equipment. Depending on how it is processed, nylon can be formed into the gossamer-like threads used in stockings or into thick toothbrush bristles.

Nylon is very much suitable for hosiery and the knitted fabrics because of its smoothness, light weight and high strength. Nylon is a lustrous fibre. The lustre of the fibre can be modified by adding the delustering agent at the molten stage.

Physical and Chemical Properties Nylon Fabrics

Composition: The nylons are polyamides with recurring amide groups. They contain carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen elements.

Strength: Nylon has good tenacity and the strength is not lost with age. Nylon has a high strength to weight ratio. It is one of the lightest textile fibres is at the same time also one of the strongest. It is one of the fibres which are added at the points of wear such as knees and seats of jeans and toes and heels of socks. The strength of the nylon fabric is lost when wet. Nylon has excellent abrasion resistance.

Elasticity: Nylon has good elasticity which makes it much suitable for the apparel purposes. The excellent elasticity would mean that the nylon materials return to their original length and shreds the wrinkles or creases. Nylon like other fibres has its own limit of elasticity. If stretched too much, it will not completely recover its shape. The high elongation and excellent elastic recovery of nylon contributes to the outstanding performance in hosiery. Nylon hosiery recovers to its original shape at knees and ankles instead of bagging.

Resilience: Nylon fabrics have excellent resilience. Nylon fabrics retain their smooth appearance and the wrinkles from the usual daily activities can be removed easily.

Drapability: Fabrics of nylon filament yarn have excellent draping qualities. The drape of the fabrics made from nylon can be varied depending on the yarn size. The light weight sheer fabrics of nylon night gowns have high-draping quality. The medium-weight dress fabrics can drape very nicely.

Heat Conductivity: The heat conductivity of the nylon fabrics vary depending upon the fabric construction, the type of nylon (staple/filament) used in the construction etc. For instance, the filament nylon used in the open construction would be cooler when compared to the same filament used in a closed construction. In a closed or tight construction the air circulation through the fabric is limited. The heat and moisture of the body will not readily pass the fabric construction, which makes the wearer feel very warm. Such fabrics are good for winter apparel, such as wind-breakers, but are not suitable for summer garments. On the other hand the fabrics with open construction permits the air circulation which makes the wearer feel cool.

Absorbency: Nylon fabrics have low absorbency. The low absorbency of the fabrics tends to be advantageous and also disadvantageous. The main advantage of the nylons low absorbency is that the water remains on the surface of the fabrics and runs off the smooth fabric and hence dries quickly. This property makes the nylon fabrics suitable for raincoats and shower curtains. Nylon’s low absorbency has a disadvantage in that the fabric feels clammy and uncomfortable in warm, humid weather.

Cleanliness and Washability: Nylon fabrics are easy care garments. Nylon fabrics are smooth, non-absorbent and dry quickly. Dirt doesn’t cling to this smooth fibre, which can be washed easily or can be even cleaned by using a damp cloth. Nylon whites are commonly referred as colour scavengers and should be washed separately to avoid greying. They easily pick up colour and dirt from the wash water. Nylons, washed with other fabrics pick up colour (even from the palest pastels) and develop a dingy grey appearance that is extremely difficult to remove. In addition to retaining their appearance during wear, garments made from nylon fabrics retain their appearance and shape after washing. Hot water should be avoided during washing as the hot water may cause wrinkling in some fabric constructions.

Effect of Bleaches: The nylon fabrics are white and generally do not require bleaching. The nylon fabrics which pick up colour or develop greying should be bleached with oxidising bleaches such as hydrogen peroxide.

Shrinkage: Nylon fabrics retain their shape and appearance after washing. It has good stability and does not shrink.

Effect of Heat: Nylon should always be ironed at low temperatures. Using hot iron will result in glazing and then melting of the fabric.

Effect of Light: Nylon fabrics have low resistance to sun light. They are not suitable for curtains or draperies as it is weakened by the exposure to sun light.

Resistance to Mildew: Nylon fabrics have absolute resistance to the development of mildew.

Resistance to Insects: Nylon is resistance to the moths and fungi.

Reaction to Alkalis: Nylon has excellent resistance to alkali's but the frequent and prolonged exposures to alkalis will weaken the nylon fabrics.

Reaction to Acids: Nylon is less resilient to the action of acids and is damaged by strong acids.

Affinity for Dyes: Nylon can be easily dyed with a wider range of dyes. The dyed fabrics retain their colour and have good resistance to fading.

Resistance to Perspiration: Nylon fabrics are resistant to perspiration.

編輯整理 Edited: ACOTEX Fabric Talks 布料指南
Source: wiseGEEK

8 Comments:

  1. 如果以100%的尼龍來做一件戶外登山用的衣服,請問它是否會比用純聚酯纖維的好很多?為何廠家會說純尼龍的工藝要求高很多及衣物的賣價會比聚酯纖維高?

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    1. 影響尼龍與聚酯纖維的好壞和適用度有很多因素,比如說纖維抽取的丹尼數、布料的厚薄度、混紡原料的好壞(如果有與其他纖維混紡的話)、混紡原料的比例(如果有與其他纖維混紡的話)、布料加工的技術和布料本身的功能等等。所以就不了解其布料的規格與細節的狀態下,很難下結論究竟尼龍較好,或是聚酯纖維較好。另外,布料的丹尼數與厚薄度也將大大影響製作上的難易度。以原料價格層面來說,尼龍的確較聚酯纖維高些,但織成布料後還是得看中間的加工過程才能進行更準確的判定。

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  2. 請問尼龍做的兒童睡袋保暖性好嗎?防蟎嗎?謝謝。

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    1. 一般尼龍或聚酯纖維等人造材質的防蟎效果都比天然材質好。
      睡袋保暖性的部分則要看製作上有無另外鋪棉等,增加其保暖性 。不然如果只是以單層布料製作的保暖性都有限。

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  3. 我本身較容易導電,冬天時常被電到,如果尼龍布料內包著化學纖維棉,而不是純棉,是否一樣容易產生靜電?謝謝您~~

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    1. 尼龍也屬於化學纖維的一種,您所說的化學纖維棉是指化學纖維和棉混紡的材質嗎?通常任何材質和棉混紡後,靜電的狀況都會較減緩,至於能減緩多少就要看棉的比例佔比,如果佔比越高,當然靜電的狀況就較小。

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  4. 請問尼龍做的薄外套 透氣性以及防曬效果 適合夏天穿嗎?

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    1. 透氣性與防曬效果無法單以材質作判斷,而是以該布料的織法、密度、厚薄與後加工項目息息相關。
      例如: 如果布料有進行抗UV加工,則能大大提升防曬效果。

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